Dangerous goods (DG) are liquids, gases and other substances that pose a potential threat to equipment and staff who carries out transportation. Based on this designation, one might think that hazardous goods are used only in the chemical industry or other complex industries. But even household appliances can have a hazard category. For example, batteries for phones and laptops are also considered hazardous.
When it comes to the international transportation of dangerous goods, you should understand that you cannot do it without special equipment and qualified personnel. Firstly, such transportation requires special permission, and secondly, without certain knowledge and specially equipped transport, people, equipment and even the environment, it can be dangerous. Therefore, such transportation should be trusted only to professionals such as UNI-LAMAN GROUP.
In international cargo transportation, a unified classification of dangerous goods has been adopted. They are divided into 9 classes:
1. Explosives which, if detonated, can damage a vehicle or kill people. This includes gunpowder, pyrotechnics, cartridges.
2. Gases, even if they are in a liquefied state, aerosols. For example, propane, ammonia, chlorine.
3. Flammable liquids – gasoline, alcohol, oil.
4. Highly flammable substances – sulfur, coal.
5. Materials prone to oxidation and self-ignition – peroxide, nitrates, etc.
6. Toxic and infectious substances that can be fatal. This category includes pesticides, arsenic, etc.
7. Radioactive substances – uranium, cobalt.
8. Corrosive substances that can damage the vehicle or harm human health. The most common corrosive substances are acids and alkalis. This also includes mercury.
9. Other substances, liquids and materials that are not assigned to any of the categories, but may cause a threat, for example, engines.
Moreover, each of the classes is divided into several more subsections. When planning the transport of dangerous goods, the category of hazard should be determined in the beginning.
The transportation of dangerous goods is regulated by a number of international documents and agreements:
1. Recommendations from the United Nations (common for any type of transport).
2. Rules of Air Transport Associations – ICAO and IATA.
3. ADR or ADR – European Agreement concerning the Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road.
4. International Code for the Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Sea.
5. SMGS (Agreement on International Goods Transport) and COTIF (Convention on International Transport) for rail transport.
6. State laws of the countries of Shipper, Consignee, as well as countries through which transit passes.
In addition to the standard set of documents, regardless of the chosen vehicle, you must provide the carrier with an MSDS certificate – a cargo safety data sheet. This document contains all the characteristics of the object with a guide for transportation and handling. Without this document, delivery of dangerous goods is impossible.
When transporting DG, certain packaging and transport requirements apply:
• Be sure to take into account the possible influence of hazardous substances on the container.
• The cargo must be hermetically sealed.
• The presence of seals is required.
• If substances are transported in glass, they must additionally be placed in a wooden container.
• It is prohibited to carry the exhaust gas from one vehicle to another.
• Containers with loads must be additionally secured inside the vehicle to avoid falling and damage.
Unified marking must be placed on the packaging, container or vehicle. Among other things, information about the hazard class, the UN code, as well information/requirements for emergency situations are applied – they inform the rescue services on how to properly eliminate a leak or fire.
When choosing a vehicle for transportation, it is necessary to clarify if there are any additional restrictions.
For example, airplanes cannot transport:
• gunpowder and pyrotechnics;
• flammable substances;
• vaccines that are transported using dry ice;
also some companies do not transport certain types of lithium batteries.
It is important to remember that a certain type of cargo may be permitted by international conventions, but the legislation of the country of delivery or transit may impose a ban on import. For example, the transit of some dangerous goods is restricted through the Turkish Bosphorus Strait and Russian territory.
If you need to transport dangerous goods, fill out the feedback form and our managers will explain all the details and select convenient transportation options.